Researchers at the University of Eastern Finland have identified new early stages of Alzheimer's disease in the human brain by combining the findings of RNA and protein found in omika analyzes with neurobioinformative further analyzes. Results from Eastern Finnish Brain Banking were published in Neurobiology of Disease.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease that is mediated by the accumulation of beta amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein in brain tissue. Identifying early changes in the brain caused by accumulations is of paramount importance in the search for new disease-preventing markers and targets.
Previously, abundant gene expression changes have been studied in the brain of persons with Alzheimer's disease, but so far only a few studies have made use of analyzes covering the entire proteom, i.e., all expressed proteins. However, it is known that expression changes do not always mediate to the protein level and also the functions of the produced proteins are regulated, for example, by phosphorylation. It is therefore necessary to consider more than one regulatory level at the same time,
In a study, researchers at the University of Eastern Finland utilized unique eastern Finnish brain banking material, where samples were classified based on brain tau accumulation to represent different stages of Alzheimer's disease. By examining the whole genome of the whole genome with RNA, protein and protein phosphorylation changes and analyzing the results by means of neurobioinformatics, it was possible to identify functional changes in certain brain regions relative to the disease-related tau accumulations. In addition, researchers have shown that by using machine learning methods, it is possible to classify patients into stages of a different disease process by looking only at alterations in the expression of a limited set of genes.
Further research aims to find out whether the brain changes detected at different stages of the disease are now also present in spinal fluid or blood samples and whether they can be used as new disease-preventing markers in the future. In addition, the changes observed at an early stage of the disease provide new possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease.
The researchers of the University of Eastern Finland have already used the brain banking data used in this research in several internationally high-level publications. The study now published was carried out by the University of Eastern Finland and the English Proteome Sciences plc. -proteomics company.
provided by University of Eastern Finland.